Forks in the road to e-mobility: An evaluation of instrument interaction in national policy mixes in Northwest Europe
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionDijk, M., Iversen, E., Klitkou, A., Kemp, R., Bolwig, S., Borup, M. & Møllgaard, P. (2020). Forks in the road to e-mobility: An evaluation of instrument interaction in national policy mixes in Northwest Europe. Energies, 13(2), 1-20. 10.3390/en13020475
This paper evaluates how policy shaped the emergence of electric mobility in three countries, Norway, the Netherlands and Denmark, between 2010 and 2015. Whereas previous studies have looked at the effects of separate policy instruments, this paper gives insights in the interaction effects of instruments on the diffusion of battery electric cars between five policy areas. Based on analysis of synergetic, contradictory and pre-conditional effects, we find that an effective policy mix includes: fiscal incentives that mirror the actual carbon footprint of the respective vehicles; non-fiscal demand-side incentives; centrally financed and/or coordinated charging infrastructure; clarity regarding the choice of technology that will be supported. Moreover, development of a domestic, e-mobility-related industry and a high share of renewable energy strengthens the legitimization of e-mobility support. The findings help designing policy mixes in the transition to electric mobility.